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melanotic macule causes

It is suggested that the term oral melanotic macule be used for these lesions, unless a specific cause can be confirmed by clinical data. Once developed the lesions usually remain unchanged in size and colour. 2003;139:767-770 YPERPIGMENTED lesions involving the oral mu-cosa have various patho-genetic causes. Simple lentigo — Simple lentigines often appear during childhood as sharply circumscribed, round-to-oval, uniformly brown or … Multiple causes are known, and they may range from simple iatrogenic mechanisms, such as implantation of dental amalgam, to complex medical disorders, such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The mucosal melanotic macule is a variant of simple lentigo that is located on mucosal surfaces, in particular the lower lip. Background: Genital melanotic macules are poorly recognized lesions, which appear as isolated discrete macules. The exact cause for VM is unknown currently. DermNet NZ does not provide an online consultation service. According to RDH Magazine, this common oral condition is present in 3 percent of the general population and is caused by a … Excision but using this form of removal will leave you a scar. If you have any concerns with your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice. It may also arise on the gingival, buccal, or palatal mucosa. 6 Biopsy for routine histopathologic examination is recommended to rule out oral melanoma in patients with melanotic macule on the palate, where malignant melanoma is most prevalent. Melanotic macules are benign pigmented lesions that are found in the oral cavity, caused by an increase in pigmentation in the basal cell layer of the epithelium and the lamina propria. They may be more common than the literature suggests, especially among dark-skinned subjects. Gupta G, Williams REA, Mackie RM. Seventy‐nine patients presented to the pigmented lesion clinic between 1983 and 1996 with labial melanotic macules. The oral melanotic macule (MM) is a small, well-circumscribed brown-to-black macule that occurs on the lips and mucous membranes. Similar freckles may also occur in areas that are not exposed to the sun: Labial melanotic macules do not cause any symptoms but their appearance can be a concern to the patient. It is the name for a freckle arising on the lip. When these macules occur in isolation, they are usually sporadic and no associated conditions are observed. [1] Oral pigmented lesions result from cellular hyperplasia that can range from benign nevi to fatal oral melanoma. Diagnosis confirmation. Clinically presentation of melanotic macules are typically a brown, black, blue or grey area that is well circumscribed, lesions are usually less than 10 mm in diameter but can be larger in some cases. A labial melanotic macule may be confused with another pigmented skin lesion. A labial melanotic macule is a well-defined, oval, brown to black, flat patch on the central third of the lower lip. Genetic disorders 2. Author: Dr Mark Duffill, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2008. Currently, there is no specific cause for this vulvar benign but there are some rarely linked factors. A dermatologist can evaluate a melanotic macule to determine if it poses any health risks to the patient. A melanotic macule is a small dark spot that is usually benign, but may be a cause for concern if it changes in color, shape, or texture. Lesions can also be found in the mouth (oral melanotic macule), on the vulva (vulval labial melanotic macule; vulval melanosis) or on the penis (penile melanotic macule). [Sponsored content]. This lesion is completely benign, but biopsy must be performed to differentiate it from melanoma. Occasionally the lesion can be on the upper lip. Some of the possible causes of Hypermelanotic macule or similar disorders may include: 2. Melanotic Macule Causes There is a variety of causes for a person to have a melanotic macule. Oral melanotic macules can appear in people of any age, of any race, and of either sex. Oral pigmentation is a relatively common condition that may involve any portion of the oral cavity. The exact cause of Melanotic Macules of Oral Mucosa is not well-understood. If a person decides that they do want them removed this can be done by: Pictures collection of the condition Melanotic Macule…, 35 Most Frequently Asked Questions About Coronavirus (COVID-19) – (with references). Luckily, melanotic macules are harmless. Size ranges from 1–8 mm. Contact us to sponsor a DermNet newsletter. Causes List for Hypermelanotic macule. A labial melanotic macule is thought to be provoked by sun exposure, and it is more common in fair-skinned people. There are no outstanding histologic differences among the eighty specimens. An oral melanotic macule found on the lip is sometimes called a labial melanotic macule. Last reviewed by Dr. Raj MD on August 14th, 2018. However it may also occur in dark-skinned individuals and, as described above, similar lesions can arise in sites that are never sun-exposed. The lesions will usually appear as a flat non-itchy rash on the lip with a color that is uniform and has a border that is well-defined. Oral melanotic macule (MM) is a small, well-circumscribed, brown-to-black macule, and about of 665 cases has been reported in the English literature (2). Oral melanotic macules may have more of a predilection toward malignant melanoma than LMM. It can even be found on the inside of your mouth, gums, called gingiva, the roof your mouth on the soft or hard palate, or inner cheek called buccal mucosa. What causes an oral melanotic macule? If you have any concerns with your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice. Like skin freckles, the exact cause of an oral melanotic macule is unknown. If treatment is requested the macules can be frozen (cryotherapy) or removed using a laser or intense pulsed light. DermNet provides Google Translate, a free machine translation service. LEOPARD syndrome– a very rare inherited disorder with problems in the skin, face and heart 2. HYPERPIGMENTED lesions involving the oral mucosa have various pathogenetic causes. Local irritants, such as smoking, may also result in melanosis of varying degrees. If it is irregular in shape or big it could be noticeable if removed. In the literature, the oral melanotic macule has been given various inappropriate and erroneous names, such as ephelis5,6 and lentigo7,8. Some of those causes can include: If the melanotic macule begins to change in texture, color, or shape it may be a cause for concern and should be check by either your physician or dermatologist. Melanotic macule is a harmless benign condition. Home The melanosis may occur on the vermilion border of the lip or the gingiva due to postinflammatory or posttraumatic causes. Lesions with a typical history and appearance need not be biopsied. This medical condition is a dark spot that is usually found on your lips, usually the bottom one but can appear on the top lip also. The presence of numerous melanotic macules on the body may be associated with a variety of syndromes including Carney complex, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome. Labial melanotic macule — codes and concepts. We have followed up these patients for up to 13 years and 3 months (mean 6 years, 3 months). It occurs in approximately three percent of the population of the world. Figure 3. If a child has one it is usually because of their race. See smartphone apps to check your skin. On the penis in men (penile melanotic macule, a penile lentigo). If the melanotic macule is removed it can create a small scar or depression in the tissue which may or may not be noticeable. However, we know that it is due to over-production and accumulation of melanin within the tissues. In some people, if they opt to have it removed the tissue may heal well and leave little or no depression or scar. However it may also occur in dark-skinned individuals and, as described above, similar lesions can arise in sites that are never sun-exposed. Sponsored content: melanomas are notoriously difficult to discover and diagnose. There are two major linked conditions. It has also been found on the genital areas. The most common lesions are oral and labial melanotic macules. GENETIC CAUSES. Melanotic macules usually arise from three sources: an intraoral freckle, postinflammatory pigmentation, or disorders such as Addison’s disease, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, or Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2011.02.040. Multiple lesions may be a sign of a widespread skin condition, such as: A labial melanotic macule has a characteristic pattern when examined with the magnifying glass or by dermoscopy. Conclusion: The congenital lingual melanotic macule represents a clinically distinct, benign, pigmented oral melanoticlesion,andmaybemorecommonthanthelit-erature suggests. With your help, we can update and expand the website. Labial melanotic macule (low power); mild acanthosis without elongation of rete ridges. These are Genetic disorders and Lichen sclerosis. Multiple lentiginosis (various syndromes including. Topics A–Z As labial melanotic macules almost always occur on the central third of the lower lip, a site receiving maximum sun exposure, … A melanotic macule is a benign pigmented lesion of oral cavity characterised by increase in melanin pigmentation. Some possible causes of Hypermelanotic macule or similar disorders may include: 4 Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Hypermelanotic macule) Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome (Hypermelanotic macule) Angioma serpiginosum, X-linked (Hypermelanotic macule) As most melanotic macule is benign for women they may be able to hide them under makeup if they are light in color and small enough so they do not attract any attention. What is the cause of labial melanotic macule? Solar lentigo (high power) with increased basal layer pigmentation AND increased melanocyte numbers. This dark area could be a melanotic macule, which is a noncancerous dark patch on the skin — called hyperpigmentation — of a mucous membrane. 7,8 Histologically, this is evidenced by abundant melanin pigmentation within the basal epithelial cell layer with melanin incontinence in … Melanin is a normal skin pigment that gives the skin its darker color. A response to environmental stress such as persistent exposure to the sun, smoking, or taking a medication that can cause your skin to darken or spot, called, It could be an indicator of an underlying medical condition like. The labial melanotic macule: a review of 79 cases. Lichen sclerosis – a skin disease which is characterized by white patches while are usually thinner than normal skin Some linked genetic disorders may include: 1. Oral melanotic macule and primary oral malignant melanoma: epidemiology, location involved, and clinical implications. The etiology is not clear and it may represent a physiologic or reactive process. There is a variety of causes for a person to have a melanotic macule. A mucosal melanocytic macule is a well-defined, oval, brown to black, flat patch, usually found on the lip (a labial melanocytic macule). Typical lesions can just be observed. British Journal of Dermatology 19997:136: 772-775. A number of inherited diseases are manifested by pigmented oral lesions. Labial melanotic macule causes Labial melanotic macule is thought to be provoked by sun exposure, and it is more common in fair skinned people. » We present evidence that this is a benign entity. A variation of the melanotic macule is the ephelis, or freckle, which generally appears as a small (2- to 3-mm) brown spot on the lip. They can occasionally have an irregular edge and there may be a history of colour change which can cause confusion with other pigmented lesions, including melanoma. Hence, treatment is not required. In such cases, the cause of the condition is genetically-influenced If a skin biopsy is done because the lesion is changing or looks irregular, a labial melanotic macule shows the following features on dermatopathology: Nuclear atypia is absent and the melanocyte count is normal. It is also sometimes called a labial lentigo and when multiple lesions are present, mucosal melanosis. A labial melanotic macule is thought to be provoked by sun exposure, and it is more common in fair-skinned people. [Congenital melanotic macules of the tongue] Although most of the time they are solitary lesions there can be more than one. Some of the rare genetic disorders associated with this condition include the following: 1. Macules can be caused by various conditions that affect the appearance of your skin, resulting in areas of discoloration. Usually solitary, a labial melanotic macule is most commonly seen in adult women but it also occurs in males and in young people. Melanotic macule may be indicative of preexisting disorders such as Addison’s disease; Treatment of melanotic macule. Oral melanotic macule is a non-cancerous (benign), dark spot found on the lips or inside the mouth. NAME syndrome– a … DermNet NZ does not provide an online consultation service. These conditions can be differentiated from labial melanotic macule by a combination of clinical and histological features. Note that this may not provide an exact translation in all languages, breadcrumbs 1,2 The oral melanotic macule presents in patients older than 40 years as a flat, blue, brown, or black, mostly solitary lesion less than 10 mm in diameter. Their occurrence, usually as new pigmented lesions in adult life, can cause concern because they can mimic early melanoma. Oral Melanotic Macule identifiable etiologic factor, the term oral melanotic macule has been suggested2. Oral melanotic macules do not cause an increase in the number of melanocytes and are not associated with a predisposition to melanoma. Although it can appear at any age in either sex, race, or gender, it is most commonly found in people who are dark skinned and in their middle ages and are female. The most common lesions are oral Peutz-Jeghers syndrome– a genetic disorder with benign hamartomatous polyps in the GI tract, lips and oral mucosa 3. Who's at risk? The average age of presentation is 43 years, with a female predilection. Their etiology is not clear and it may represent a physiologic or reactive process. Clinical and dermatoscopic features of labial melanotic macule. For most of the melanotic macule your dermatologist or physician will observe it over time to make sure that it does not change in shape, color, or texture and will not remove it and it will not need any treatment. Objective: Our purpose was to define the clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and electronmicroscopic features of genital melanotic macules. Being born with one or having it appear in early childhood, which is common for people who have dark skin. It is usually asymptomatic and does not cause any severe signs or symptoms. Having a melanotic macule does not cause any symptoms but when you see one it is usually smaller than seven millimeters in diameter. These spots usually appear on the lips or genitals and can have a number of causes. Labial melanotic macule. Luckily, melanotic macules are harmless. » Melanotic macules are caused by functional hyperactivity of the regional melanocytes (ie, there is increased melanin production). Brown macules on the lower lip are relatively common, especially in young adult women. Intense pulsed light therapy which is a form of laser therapy. There are two major related factors, including: 1. Some of those causes can include: Being born with one or having it appear in early childhood, which is common for people who have dark skin. Luckily, melanoma is very rare on the lip (but it can occur). When numerous macules are observed, they may be found in association with certain genetic conditions or syndromes. Mucosal melanotic macule is a broader term encompassing lesions of the mouth as well as the lip. Another name for this medical condition is labial melanotic macule and it is sometimes referred to as a freckle on the lip. To make sure what type of treatment is needed, if any, they will usually do a skin biopsy to confirm if it is melanotic macule or another medical condition that could be precancerous or cancerous. Excision can also be performed but will leave a scar. But before we proceed, we have to acknowledge that this condition is not related to systemic diseases or sunlight. Suspicious lesions, including lesions showing progressive change, should be biopsied. Congenital lingual melanotic macules represent a clinically distinct and benign cause of hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa. Labial melanotic macules are differentiated from other entities by a combination of clinical and histologic features. Oral melanoacanthoma and oral melanotic macule: a report of 8 cases, review of the literature, and immunohistochemical analysis Román Carlos-Bregni 1 , Elisa Contreras 1 , Ana Carolina Netto , Adalberto Mosqueda-Taylor 2 , Pablo Agustin Vargas 3 , Jacks H Arch Dermatol. Ephelis (freckle) is a circumscribed brown macule over skin that has been exposed to sunlight. Melanin pigmentation tends to be present in significant amounts in the basal-cell layer and less often in the lamina propria. The color of the lesion is normally darker than the tissue that surrounds it. Shen ZY, Liu W, Bao ZX, Zhou ZT, Wang LZ Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011 Jul;112(1):e21-5. A melanotic macule is normally benign, which means it is not cancerous. Conditions that are likely to cause macules are: vitiligo; moles; freckles Up to 13 years and 3 months ( mean 6 years, 3 months.... Of causes lesions result from cellular hyperplasia that can range from benign nevi to oral... 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If the melanotic macule by a combination of clinical and histologic features risks to patient. Are no outstanding histologic differences among the eighty specimens melanocytes and are not associated with a typical history appearance. Oral lesions remain unchanged in size and colour fair-skinned people oral melanoticlesion, suggests. Power ) with increased basal layer pigmentation and increased melanocyte numbers occurrence, as! From benign nevi to fatal oral melanoma the rare genetic disorders associated with this condition include the:! Risks to the patient sporadic and no associated conditions are observed, they are usually sporadic and associated... This may not be noticeable ( ie, there is increased melanin production.! As the lip a penile lentigo ) pathogenetic causes by increase in the basal-cell layer and less often in skin!, if they opt to have it removed the tissue that surrounds it sun-exposed... 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